(message = be careful when, where and how much
N you spread).
WE HAVE A LOT DONE BUT A LOT MORE TO
DO - EVERY FARMER SHOULD ADRESS THESE
PRACTICES AND APPLY THEM ON HIS FARM
He will be more profitable, and,
Our "social licence" will be enhanced.
Breeding: Every 1 of EBI increases profit per cow by
2The increase in EBI is going to continue.
The target EBI Fertility target is 100 for black and
white cows and 70 for Jersey crosses,
Genomics is 16-35 per cent more accurate.
Jersey X is 150/cow more profitable than B & W
Genomics; For the period 2011 2017 seven
top genomic and daughter proven bulls were
compared resulting in the genomic ones being 52
At 22/hd cost, we should consider genotyping
all females as the gain is more than double the
cost and the advantage is greatest the lower the
replacement rate in a herd (happening now as
If using AI genomic bulls: use 7/100 cows,
10/200cows and 12/300 cows.
Do milk recording so that you have C.O.W., which
takes into account hybrid vigour (EBI doesn't),
information to assist with culling/breeding
Use sire advice to selectively mate the best cows to
the best bulls without worrying about inbreeding
only 3,300 farmers using it and it should be an
absolute priority for herds with high EBI and PDs
for % F & P.
The high EBI herd (next generation at 214)
when compared with national average herd, 110
EBI, gave 222/cow and 613/ha more profit
why is our national average so low? Too many
replacements (49 per cent in 2018) by stock dairy
bulls (so much for trying to improve out Carbon
The Elite Jersey herd (av. Wt. = 393kgs) produced
434kg MS (110 per cent of her body weight)
compared with 88 per cent (B & W elite herd)
and 82 per cent for the national average herd.
In another experiment the JX and 3Way X (incl.
Norwegian Red) produced 98 per cent and 91 per
cent of their respective body weights.
Factors associated with oestrous/bulling:
Targets: 3 week submission rate = 90 per cent and
6 week in-calf rate = 75 per cent+.
4 main activity times: 2-3; 7-9; 11-13.00; and 21-
Fertile cows (59 164 EBI fertility) remain in heat
for 1-2 hrs longer than lower fertility cows,
Other factors influencing heat duration are: farm,
late V early calving; 2nd lactations were nearly
2 hrs less than others, high milk yield in early
lactation resulted in fewer "mounts" and non-
pregnant animals had 4 fewer "mounts".
Because uterine infection reduces cow fertility it
is advised to Metricheck all cows 3-5 weeks (calved
more than 14 days) before start of breeding
Scan cows 5-7 weeks after the end of breeding and
cull cows, based on data, so as to prolong grass in
the remaining cows' diet
The target dry off BCS is 3.0.
The target % protein ration at grass is 12-14 per
cent saves on emissions (this is vital to operate).
There was no difference in milk yield in early
lactation when 4 kgs meal was fed to cows with %
proteins of 27 per cent, 19 per cent or 10 per cent.
Palm kernel and beet pulp produced less milk
than dairy ration or soya hulls during drought
Also, in those conditions heat treated soya bean
meal (1kg/cow/day) significantly increased MS/
A feed reserve of 500-800kgs DM/cow is advised
to risk manage a bad year but no extra milk will be
Healthy Cow = Healthy milk:
Chlorine should be discontinued for cleaning dairy
Avoid residues, chlorine, iodine, etc. and high
Antibiotic message; use as little as possible and as
much as necessary,
With a good mastitis control programme, teat seal
can be used on cows up to 200K SCC, the previous
season, with only small effect on subsequent
season's bulk tank SCCs.
A tail mounted biosensor can predict the onset of
Calves: Feeding pooled, high quality colostrum did
NOT affect the calf health or performance during
the pre-weaning period.