National Target Yours
Mating Start Date: Cows
Start of Calving: Cows
Submission Rate Heifers
Not In-calf (%)
% In-calf by
Table 2: Fertility Report and Targets for 2019
(Source ICBF Fertility Report)
How do you make use of this effi ciency data:
Know the targets and how it aff ects profi t. Then act
on the solution.
Mating Start Date (MSD):
As for calving the heifers mating should be 5-7 days
earlier than cows.
Start of Calving to median calving Date. It should be less
than 18 days and 15 days respectively for the cows and
Synchronisation of heifers is absolutely essential to
achieve these targets
Length of Breeding Season: This drives compact calving
and weeds out infertility and poor heat detection.
21-day submission rate: It is the big driver of the 6-week
calving rate. Submission rates are a function of previous
calving date, good BCS management; good calving care,
care from calving to mating and more than anything very
good heat detection rate,
1st service pregnancy rate: This is really non-return rate
(NRR) unless pregnancy is confi rmed by scanning and it
needs to be over 70%.
Short Repeat Intervals: Some experts say that this
indicates an "over-anxious AI man". Probably getting
heat identifi cation wrong and deciding to "serve
anyway". Also, a lot of farmers reserve a cow if she is on-
heat the day after service.
Long Repeat Interval: Indicates missed heat but it could
be embryo loss also.
This fi gure is a good indicator of your heat detection
Percentage not incalf; It should be 10% or less based on
scanning. It and 6-week calving fi gure are the real KPI's
for fertility assessment on a farm.
Services per Conception per Lactation: The target is 1.7
services per cow in calf.
% in-calf by bull name: This is very useful info in that it
can tell you, if one bull is low that his semen is suspect.
If all bulls are low it begs you to ask the question
"why?". It may be due to:
Poor AI man or poor management of straws on day of
service or poor storage of AI straws,
Poor management of cows in day of service, resulting
Problems before, at or after calving,
Poor BCS at calving or loss of BCS from calving to
Lack of energy with high % protein feeds from calving
Lack of key minerals, eg. Copper, iodine, selenium,
Address Preventative Care
Use your Vet to make a winter animal health
Also you should with his advice shift some
vaccinations from Feb & March to now so as to
reduce spring workload.
Cows should be examined now for health related
problems, such as, fl uke, worms, lice, mastitis, lameness,
etc so as to make their lives more comfortable and
fruitful for calving; as well as being more profi table next
Confi rm the presence of health problems with a blood or
If cows on wet, and for that matter even dry, farms have
not already been treated for fl uke they should be done
Young cows, if they are scouring, may need a worm dose.
Happens when immune system is low due to over-use
of dosing at calf stage.
All stock must be done for lice at least once if not twice
Some farmers see a benefi t of clipping a strip of hair
along the backbone as is done on weanlings and beef
To prevent mastitis arising during the dry period keep
the cow's bedding very clean during the fi rst 28 days
after drying off .